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Fiechtner JJ and Montroy T—Lupus, 2014

Disclosure statement: Funding to support this study was provided by Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals.

An open-label, prospective 4-week study of 10 patients with chronic moderately to severely active SLE with flares1

Objective

To evaluate Acthar Gel in patients with chronic moderately to severely active SLE disease and experiencing flares as measured by changes from baseline in the SLEDAI-2K score and health outcomes assessments

Study Design1

  • Diagnosis of SLE with chronic disease activity defined as:
  • Patients had to fulfill at least 4 of the 11 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria for SLE,* including a history of antinuclear antibody positivity
  • SLE flares defined as:
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) score ≥6
  • At least 1 "A" organ system score or 2 “B” organ system scores on the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index
  • Physician Global Assessment score ≥1 on a 0-3 visual analog scale (VAS)
  • Patients received either a stable dose of prednisone (or equivalent) ≤20 mg/day for at least 4 weeks or 8 weeks of a commonly used immunosuppressive or antimalarial treatment for SLE
  • Most patients self-administered 80 units of Acthar Gel daily for 10 days, in addition to their existing regimen
  • There was an optional 5-day extension for partial responders or nonresponders (defined as a SLEDAI-2K >6)
  • Patients were assessed weekly for 28 days and could report adverse events at any time during the study

*Patients had to meet at least 4 of the 11 ACR criteria to meet the standards of diagnosis. The 11 criteria included: discoid rash, hematologic disorder, immunologic disorder, malar rash, neurologic disorder, nonerosive arthritis, oral ulcers, photosensitivity, pleuritis or pericarditis, positive antinuclear antibody, and renal disorder.

One patient received Acthar Gel treatment for 7 days due to an adverse event.

Study Assessments1

Primary endpoint

  • SLEDAI-2K improvement at Day 28 against baseline scores

Secondary endpoints

  • Physician Global Assessment
  • Patient Global Assessment
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
  • C-reactive protein (CRP)
  • Lupus Quality of Life (LupusQoL) scale
  • Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-Fatigue) scale
  • BILAG scores

Patient Characteristics1

Patients had moderately to severely active chronic SLE and were previously treated with multiple therapies

rheum-28

Not every patient was on the same concomitant treatments.

Study Limitations1

  • Results are based on a prospective, single-site, open-label, non–placebo-controlled study of 10 patients and may not be fully representative of outcomes in the overall patient population
  • Most patients were on multiple therapies
  • The clinical outcomes may not be solely attributable to Acthar Gel
  • Acthar Gel has not been formally studied in combination with other commonly used therapies for SLE

Primary Endpoint1

SLEDAI-2K scores were reduced at all follow-up visits after Acthar Gel was used as part of an SLE treatment regimen

Statistically significant reductions in SLEDAI-2K scores with Acthar Gel by Day 28 (N=10)*

Acthar Gel SLE study results: SLEDAI-2K scores

SLEDAI-2K=Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000.

*SLEDAI-2K scores were calculated for each patient based on the presence or absence of organ manifestations in the previous 10 days. Responses for each organ manifestation were weighted and totaled into the final score, ranging from 0 (inactive disease) to 105.

Key Secondary Endpoints1

The population of patients (N=10) had statistically significant improvements in the following secondary endpoints by Day 28

  • Physician Global Assessment
  • Patient Global Assessment
  • ESR
  • LupusQoL scale
  • FACIT-Fatigue scale

Patients had reduced SLE disease activity after Acthar Gel was added to their SLE treatment regimen.

BILAG=British Isles Lupus Assessment Group; CRP=C-reactive protein; ESR=erythrocyte sedimentation rate;

FACIT=Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy; QoL=quality of life.

CRP results were not significant and BILAG scores were not reported.

Safety ENDPOINTS1

  • No treatment-related SAEs or unexpected AEs were observed
  • No changes in blood pressure or blood glucose levels were observed
  • One patient experienced bilateral edema in the legs/ankles
  • One patient reported a sinus infection that resolved with antibiotic treatment

AE=adverse event; SAE=serious adverse event.

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Dosing recommendations

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INDICATIONS

Acthar® Gel is indicated for:

  • Inducing a diuresis or a remission of proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome without uremia of the idiopathic type or that due to lupus erythematosus
  • Monotherapy for the treatment of infantile spasms in infants and children under 2 years of age
  • Treatment of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis in adults. Controlled clinical trials have shown Acthar to be effective in speeding the resolution of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis. However, there is no evidence that it affects the ultimate outcome or natural history of the disease

Important Safety information

Contraindications

Acthar is contraindicated for:

  • For intravenous administration
  • In infants under 2 years of age who have suspected congenital infections
  • With concomitant administration of live or live attenuated vaccines in patients receiving immunosuppressive doses of Acthar

INDICATIONS

Acthar® Gel is indicated for:

  • Inducing a diuresis or a remission of proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome without uremia of the idiopathic type or that due to lupus erythematosus
  • Monotherapy for the treatment of infantile spasms in infants and children under 2 years of age
  • Treatment of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis in adults. Controlled clinical trials have shown Acthar to be effective in speeding the resolution of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis. However, there is no evidence that it affects the ultimate outcome or natural history of the disease
  • Severe acute and chronic allergic and inflammatory processes involving the eye and its adnexa such as: keratitis, iritis, iridocyclitis, diffuse posterior uveitis and choroiditis, optic neuritis, chorioretinitis, anterior segment inflammation
  • Symptomatic sarcoidosis
  • Treatment during an exacerbation or as maintenance therapy in selected cases of systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Treatment during an exacerbation or as maintenance therapy in selected cases of dermatomyositis (polymyositis)
  • Adjunctive therapy for short-term administration (to tide the patient over an acute episode or exacerbation) in: psoriatic arthritis; rheumatoid arthritis, including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (selected cases may require low-dose maintenance therapy); ankylosing spondylitis

Important Safety information

Contraindications

Acthar is contraindicated:

  • For intravenous administration
  • In infants under 2 years of age who have suspected congenital infections
  • With concomitant administration of live or live attenuated vaccines in patients receiving immunosuppressive doses of Acthar
  • In patients with scleroderma, osteoporosis, systemic fungal infections, ocular herpes simplex, recent surgery, history of or the presence of a peptic ulcer, congestive heart failure, uncontrolled hypertension, primary adrenocortical insufficiency, adrenocortical hyperfunction, or sensitivity to proteins of porcine origin

Warnings and Precautions

  • The adverse effects of Acthar are related primarily to its steroidogenic effects
  • Acthar may increase susceptibility to new infection or reactivation of latent infections
  • Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may occur following prolonged therapy with the potential for adrenal insufficiency after withdrawal of the medication. Adrenal insufficiency may be minimized by tapering of the dose when discontinuing treatment. During recovery of the adrenal gland patients should be protected from the stress (e.g., trauma or surgery) by the use of corticosteroids. Monitor patients for effects of HPA axis suppression after stopping treatment
  • Cushing’s syndrome may occur during therapy but generally resolves after therapy is stopped. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms
  • Acthar can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and hypokalemia. Monitor blood pressure and sodium and potassium levels
  • Acthar often acts by masking symptoms of other diseases/disorders. Monitor patients carefully during and for a period following discontinuation of therapy
  • Acthar can cause gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and gastric ulcer. There is also an increased risk for perforation in patients with certain GI disorders. Monitor for signs of perforation and bleeding
  • Acthar may be associated with central nervous system effects ranging from euphoria, insomnia, irritability, mood swings, personality changes, and severe depression to psychosis. Existing conditions may be aggravated
  • Patients with comorbid disease may have that disease worsened. Caution should be used when prescribing Acthar in patients with diabetes and myasthenia gravis
  • Prolonged use of Acthar may produce cataracts, glaucoma, and secondary ocular infections. Monitor for signs and symptoms
  • Acthar is immunogenic and prolonged administration of Acthar may increase the risk of hypersensitivity reactions. Neutralizing antibodies with chronic administration may lead to loss of endogenous ACTH and Acthar activity
  • There may be an enhanced effect in patients with hypothyroidism and in those with cirrhosis of the liver
  • Long-term use may have negative effects on growth and physical development in children. Monitor pediatric patients
  • Decrease in bone density may occur. Bone density should be monitored in patients on long-term therapy
  • Pregnancy Class C: Acthar has been shown to have an embryocidal effect and should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus

Adverse Reactions

  • Commonly reported postmarketing adverse reactions for Acthar include injection site reaction, asthenic conditions (including fatigue, malaise, asthenia, and lethargy), fluid retention (including peripheral swelling), insomnia, headache, and blood glucose increased
  • The most common adverse reactions for the treatment of infantile spasms (IS) are increased risk of infections, convulsions, hypertension, irritability, and pyrexia. Some patients with IS progress to other forms of seizures; IS sometimes masks these seizures, which may become visible once the clinical spasms from IS resolve

Other adverse events reported are included in the full Prescribing Information.

Please see full Prescribing Information for additional Important Safety Information.

References:

  • Data on file: REF-04586. Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.
  • Acthar Gel (repository corticotropin injection) [prescribing information]. Bedminster, NJ: Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.

References:

  • Acthar Gel (repository corticotropin injection) [prescribing information]. Bedminster, NJ: Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.
  • Huang JY, Galen K, Zweifel B, Brooks LR, Wright AD. Distinct binding and signaling activity of Acthar Gel compared to other melanocortin receptor agonists. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2020;1-9. DOI:10.1080/10799893.2020.1818094.
  • Healy LM, Jang JH, Lin YH, Rao V, Antel JP, Wright D. Melanocortin receptor mediated anti-inflammatory effect of repository corticotropin injection on human monocytederived macrophages [ECTRIMS-ACTRIMS abstract EP1481]. Mult Scler J. 2017;23(suppl 3):777.
  • Wright D, Zweifel B, Sharma P, Galen K, Fitch R. Reduced steroidogenic activity of repository corticotropin injection induces a distinct cytokine response following T cell activation in vivo [EULAR abstract AB0082]. Ann Rheum Dis. 2019b;78(suppl 2):1504.
  • Olsen NJ, Decker DA, Higgins P, et al. Direct effects of HP Acthar Gel on human B lymphocyte activation in vitro. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015;17:300. doi:10.1186/s13075-015-0823-y.

References:

  • Acthar Gel (repository corticotropin injection) [prescribing information]. Bedminster, NJ: Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.
  • Catania A, Lonati C, Sordi A, Carlin A, Leonardi P, Gatti S. The melanocortin system in control of inflammation. ScientificWorldJournal. 2010;10:1840-1853. doi:10.1100/tsw.2010.173.
  • Olsen NJ, Decker DA, Higgins P, et al. Direct effects of HP Acthar Gel on human B lymphocyte activation in vitro. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015;17:300. doi:10.1186/s13075-015-0823-y.
  • Healy LM, Jang JH, Lin YH, Rao V, Ante! JP, Wright D. Melanocortin receptor mediated anti-inflammatory effect of repository corticotropin injection on human monocyte-derived macrophages [ECTRIMS-ACTRIMS abstract EP1481]. Mult Scler J. 2017;23(suppl 3):777.
  • Wright D, Zweifel B, Sharma P, Galen K, Fitch R. Reduced steroidogenic activity of repository corticotropin injection induces a distinct cytokine response following T cell activation in vivo [EULAR abstract AB0082]. Ann Rheum Dis. 2019b;78(suppl 2):1504.
  • Data on file: REF-MNK1000006114; REF-MNK1000061115; REF-MNK1000006949; REF-MNK100010998; REF-MNK1000011634; REF-MNK19972. Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.
  • Gong R. The renaissance of corticotropin therapy in proteinuric nephropathies. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2011;8(2):122-128.
  • Lisak RP, Benjamins JA. Melanocortins, melanocortin receptors and multiple sclerosis. Brain Sci. 2017;7(104):1-18.
  • Artuc M, Grützkau A, Luger T, Henz BM. Expression of MC1- and MC5-receptors on the human mast cell line HMC-1. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;885:364-367.
  • Lisak R, Bealmear B, Nedlekoska L, et al. Schwann cells express melanocortin receptor subtypes: activation by ACTH 1–39 and alpha-MSH enhances proliferation [abstract P1.430]. Neurology. 2018;90(suppl 15):1-2.
  • Cheng LB, Cheng L, Bi HE, et al. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone protects retinal pigment epithelium cells from oxidative stress through activation of melanocortin 1 receptor-Akt-mTOR signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;443(2):447-452.
  • Zhong Q, Sridhar S, Ruan L, et al. Multiple melanocortin receptors are expressed in bone cells. Bone. 2005;36(5):820-831.
  • Lindskog A, Ebefors K, Johansson ME, et al. Melanocortin 1 receptor agonists reduce proteinuria. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21(8):1290-1298.
  • Mountjoy KG. Distribution and function of melanocortin receptors within the brain. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;681:29-48.
  • Buggy JJ. Binding of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone to its G-protein-coupled receptor on B-lymphocytes activates the Jak/STAT pathway. Biochem J. 1998;331(pt 1):211-216.
  • Taylor AW, Namba K. In vitro induction of CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells by the neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Immunol Cell Biol. 2001;79(4):358-367.

References:

  • Acthar Gel (repository corticotropin injection) [prescribing information]. Bedminster, NJ: Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.
  • Data on file: REF-MNK14314065. Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.
  • Coolens JL, Van Baelen H, Heyns W. Clinical use of unbound plasma cortisol as calculated from total cortisol and corticosteroid-binding globulin. J Steroid Biochem. 1987;26(2):197-202.
  • Zoorob RJ, Cender D. A different look at corticosteroids. Am Fam Physician. 1998;58(2):443-450.
  • Data on file: REF-MNK03003. Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.

References:

  • Acthar Gel (repository corticotropin injection) [prescribing information]. Bedminster, NJ: Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.
  • Olsen NJ, Decker DA, Higgins P, et al. Direct effects of HP Acthar Gel on human B-lymphocyte activation in vitro. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015;17:300. doi: 10.1186/s13075-015-0823-y.
  • Healy LM, Jang JH, Lin YH, Rao V, Antel JP, Wright D. Melanocortin receptor mediated anti-inflammatory effect of repository corticotropin injection on human monocyte-derived macrophages [ECTRIMS-ACTRIMS abstract EP14841]. Mult Scler J. 2017;23(suppl 3):777.
  • Healy LM, Lin YH, Jang JH, Rao V, Antel JP, Wright D. Melanocortin receptor mediated anti-inflammatory effect of repository corticotropin injection on human monocyte-derived macrophages. Poster presented at: 7th Joint ECTRIMS-ACTRIMS Meeting; October 25-28, 2017; Paris, France. Poster EP1481.

References:

  • Acthar Gel (repository corticotropin injection) [prescribing information]. Bedminster, NJ: Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.
  • Fleischmann R, Furst DE, Connolly-Strong E, Liu J, Zhu J, Brasington R. Repository corticotropin injection for active rheumatoid arthritis despite aggressive treatment: a randomized controlled withdrawal trial. Rheumatol Ther. 2020;7(2):327-344.
  • Aggarwal R, Marder G, Koontz DC, Nandkumar P, Qi Z, Oddis CV. Efficacy and safety of adrenocorticotropic hormone gel in refractory dermatomyositis and polymyositis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2018;77(5):720-727.
  • Fiechtner JJ, Montroy T. Treatment of moderately to severely active systemic lupus erythematosus with adrenocorticotropic hormone: a single-site, open-label trial. Lupus. 2014;23(9):905-912.
  • Fiechtner JJ, Montroy T, June J. A single-site, investigator initiated open-label trial of H.P. Acthar® Gel (repository corticotropin injection) an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogue in subjects with moderately to severely active psoriatic arthritis (PsA). J Dermatol Res Ther. 2016;2(5):1-7.
  • Baughman RP, Barney JB, O'Hare L, Lower EE. A retrospective pilot study examining the use of Acthar gel in sarcoidosis patients. Respir Med. 2016;110:66-72.
  • Hladunewich MA, Cattran D, Beck LH, et al. A pilot study to determine the dose and effectiveness of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (Acthar® Gel) in nephrotic syndrome due to idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014;29(8):1570-1577.
  • Bomback AS, Canetta PA, Beck LH Jr, Ayalon R, Radhakrishnan J, Appel GB. Treatment of resistant glomerular diseases with adrenocorticotropic hormone gel: a prospective trial. Am J Nephrol. 2012;36(1):58-67.
  • Madan A, Mijovic-Das S, Stankovic A, Teehan G, Milward AS, Khastgir A. Acthar gel in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome: a multicenter retrospective case series. BMC Nephrol. 2016;17:37.
  • Tumlin J, Galphin C, Santos R, Rovin B. Kidney Int Rep. 2017;2(5):924-932.
  • Bomback AS, Tumlin JA, Baranski J, et al. Treatment of nephrotic syndrome with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2011;5:147-153.
  • Filippone EJ, Dopson SJ, Rivers DM, et al. Adrenocorticotropic hormone analog use for podocytopathies. Int Med Case Rep J. 2016;9:125-133.
  • Hogan J, Bomback AS, Mehta K, et al. Treatment of idiopathic FSGS with adrenocorticotropic hormone gel. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8(12):2072-2081.

References:

  • Acthar Gel (repository corticotropin injection) [prescribing information]. Bedminster, NJ: Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.

References:

  • Fleischmann R, Furst DE, Connolly-Strong E, Liu J, Zhu J, Brasington R. Repository corticotropin injection for active rheumatoid arthritis despite aggressive treatment: a randomized controlled withdrawal trial. Rheumatol Ther. 2020;7(2):327-344.
  • US Department of Health and Human Services. Enrichment strategies for clinical trials to support determination of effectiveness of human drugs and biological products. Guidance for industry. March 2019. https://www.fda.gov/media/121320/download. Accessed June 11, 2019.
  • Fleischmann R, Furst DE, Connolly-Strong E, Liu J, Zhu J, Brasington R. A multicenter study assessing the efficacy and safety of repository corticotropin injection in patients with persistently active rheumatoid arthritis. Poster presented at: European Congress of Rheumatology; June 12-15, 2019; Madrid, Spain.
  • Curtis JR, Yang S, Chen L, et al. Determining the minimally important difference in the clinical disease activity index for improvement and worsening in early rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2015;67(10):1345-1353.
  • Orbai AM, Bingham CO III. Patient reported outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2015;17(4):28.

References:

  • Ho-Mahler N, Turner B, Eaddy M, Hanke ML, Nelson WW. Treatment with repository corticotropin injection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and dermatomyositis/polymyositis. Open Access Rheumatol. 2020;12:21-28.
  • Acthar Gel (repository corticotropin injection) [prescribing information]. Bedminster, NJ: Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.

References:

  • Aggarwal R, Marder G, Koontz DC, Nandkumar P, Qi Z, Oddis CV. Efficacy and safety of adrenocorticotropic hormone gel in refractory dermatomyositis and polymyositis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2018;77(5):720-727.

References:

  • Fiechtner JJ, Montroy T. Treatment of moderately to severely active systemic lupus erythematosus with adrenocorticotropic hormone: a single-site, open-label trial. Lupus. 2014;23(9):905-912.

References:

  • Kaplan J, Miller T, Baker M, Due B, Zhao E. A prospective observational registry of repository corticotropin injection (Acthar® Gel) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis relapse. Front Neurol. 2020;11:598496.doi:10.3389/fneur.2020.598496.
  • Polman CH, Reingold SC, Banwell B, et al. Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald Criteria. Ann Neurol. 2011;69(2):292-302.
  • Data on file: REF-MNK14130050. Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.
  • Hobart J, Lamping D, Fitzpatrick R, Riazi A, Thompson A. The Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29): a new patient-based outcome measure. Brain. 2001;124(pt 5):962-973.
  • Jones KH, Ford DV, Jones PA, et al. The physical and psychological impact of multiple sclerosis using the MSIS-29 via the web portal of the UK MS Register. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e5542. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055422.
  • Costelloe L, O'Rourke K, Kearney H, et al. The patient knows best: significant change in the physical component of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29 physical). J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78(8):841-844.
  • Widener GL, Allen DD. Measurement characteristics and clinical utility of the 29-item Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014;95(3):593-594.
  • Kurtzke JF. Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Neurology. 1983;33(11):1444-1452.
  • Busner J, Targum SD. The clinical global impressions scale: applying a research tool in clinical practice. Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2007;4(7):28-37.
  • Acthar Gel (repository corticotropin injection) [prescribing information]. Bedminster, NJ: Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.

References:

  • Bryan MS, Sergott RC. Changes in visual acuity and retinal structures following repository corticotropin injection (RCI) therapy in patients with acute demyelinating optic neuritis: improvement in low contrast visual acuity in both affected and contralateral eyes in a single-armed open-label study. J Neurol Sci. 2019;407:116505. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2019.116505.

References:

  • Knupp KG, Coryell J, Nickels KC, et al. Response to treatment in a prospective national infantile spasms cohort. Ann Neurol. 2016;79(3):475-484.

References:

  • Alhamad T, Manllo Dieck J, Younus U, et al. ACTH gel in resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after kidney transplantation. Transplantation. 2019;103(1):202-209.
  • Acthar Gel (repository corticotropin injection) [prescribing information]. Bedminster, NJ: Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.
  • Hladunewich MA, Cattran D, Beck LH, et al. A pilot study to determine the dose and effectiveness of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (Acthar® Gel) in nephrotic syndrome due to idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014;29(8):1570-1577.
  • Bomback AS, Canetta PA, Beck LH Jr, Ayalon R, Radhakrishnan J, Appel GB. Treatment of resistant glomerular diseases with adrenocorticotropic hormone gel: a prospective trial. Am J Nephrol. 2012;36(1):58-67.
  • Madan A, Mijovic-Das S, Stankovic A, Teehan G, Milward AS, Khastgir A. Acthar Gel in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome: a multicenter retrospective case series. BMC Nephrol. 2016;17:37.
  • Tumlin J, Galphin C, Santos R, Rovin B. Kidney Int Rep. 2017;2(5):924-932.
  • Bomback AS, Tumlin JA, Baranski J, et al. Treatment of nephrotic syndrome with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2011;5:147-153.
  • Filippone EJ, Dopson SJ, Rivers DM, et al. Adrenocorticotropic hormone analog use for podocytopathies. Int Med Case Rep J. 2016;9:125-133.
  • Hogan J, Bomback AS, Mehta K, et al. Treatment of idiopathic FSGS with adrenocorticotropic hormone gel. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8(12):2072-2081.

References:

  • Baughman RP, Barney JB, O'Hare L, Lower EE. A retrospective pilot study examining the use of Acthar gel in sarcoidosis patients. Respir Med. 2016;110:66-72.

References:

  • Baughman RP, Sweiss N, Keijsers R, et al. Repository corticotropin for chronic pulmonary sarcoidosis. Lung. 2017;195(3):313-322.

References:

  • Data on file: REF-04586. Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.
  • Fleischmann R, Furst DE, Connolly-Strong E, Liu J, Zhu J, Brasington R. Repository corticotropin injection for active rheumatoid arthritis despite aggressive treatment: a randomized controlled withdrawal trial. Rheumatol Ther. 2020;7(2):327-344.
  • Chopra I, Qin Y, Kranyak J, et al. Repository corticotropin injection in patients with advanced symptomatic sarcoidosis: retrospective analysis of medical records. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2019;13:1753466619888127. doi:10.1177/1753466619888127.
  • Data on file: REF-MNK14084113. Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.
  • Zand L, Canetta P, Lafayette R, et al. An open-label pilot study of adrenocorticotrophic hormone in the treatment of IgA nephropathy at high risk of progression. Kidney Int Rep. 2020;5(1):58-65.
  • Kaplan J, Miller T, Baker M, Due B, Zhao E. A prospective observational registry of repository corticotropin injection (Acthar® Gel) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis relapse. Front Neurol. 2020;11:598496.doi:10.3389/fneur.2020.598496.

References:

  • Madan A, Mijovic-Das S, Stankovic A, Teehan G, Milward AS, Khastgir A. Acthar gel in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome: a multicenter retrospective case series. BMC Nephrol. 2016;17(1):37. doi:10.1186/s12882-016-0241-7.
  • Data on file: REF-ARDUS/01-03/0917/0002. Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.
  • Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Glomerulonephritis Work Group. Clinical practice guideline for glomerulonephritis. Kidney Int Suppl. 2012;2(2):139-274.

References:

  • Zand L, Canetta P, Lafayette R, et al. An open-label pilot study of adrenocorticotrophic hormone in the treatment of lgA nephropathy at high risk of progression. Kidney Int Rep. 2020;5(1):58-65.
  • Acthar Gel (repository corticotropin injection) [prescribing information]. Bedminster, NJ: Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.

References:

  • Baram TZ, Mitchell WG, Tournay A, Snead OC, Hanson RA, Horton EJ. High-dose corticotropin (ACTH) versus prednisone for infantile spasms: a prospective, randomized, blinded study. Pediatrics. 1996;97(3):375-379.

References:

  • Data on file: REF-MNK14084113. Mallinckrodt ARD LLC.

References:

  • Bryan MS, Sergott RC. Changes in visual acuity and retinal structures following repository corticotropin injection (RCI) therapy in patients with acute demyelinating optic neuritis: improvement in low contrast visual acuity in both affected and contralateral eyes in a single-armed open-label study. J Neurol Sci. 2019;407:116505. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2019.116505.

References:

  • Fiechtner JJ, Montroy T, June J. A single-site, investigator initiated open-label trial of H.P. Acthar® Gel (repository corticotropin injection) an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogue in subjects with moderately to severely active psoriatic arthritis (PsA). J Dermatol Res Ther. 2016;2(5):1-7.
  • Schmitt J, Wozel G. The psoriasis area and severity index is the adequate criterion to define severity in chronic plaque-type psoriasis. Dermatology. 2005;210(3):194-199.

References:

  • Chopra I, Qin Y, Kranyak J, et al. Repository corticotropin injection in patients with advanced symptomatic sarcoidosis: retrospective analysis of medical records. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2019;13:1753466619888127. doi:10.1177/1753466619888127.

References:

  • Tumlin J, Galphin C, Santos R, Rovin B. Kidney Int Rep. 2017;2(5):924-932.

References:

  • Nelson WW, Lima AF, Kranyak J, et al. Retrospective medical record review to describe use of repository corticotropin injection among patients with uveitis in the United States. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2019;35(3):182-188.